Art            Lip               Welcome                  to my universe
I‘m a: singer/songwriter, multi-instrumentalist/trumpetplayer, producer/performer, photographer/visual artist, science fiction writer
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Tutorial

The Mainstream Soloist

Chords

How the naming system works Certain chord types always appear on certain steps of a cadence: step      abbreviation    Pronounciation I             Maj7                  Major 7th II            m7                     Minor 7th III           m7                     Minor 7th IV           Maj7                  Major 7th V            7                         Dominant 7th VI           m7                     Minor 7th VII          m7b5                Half-diminished 7th For the complete cadence (explanation follows farther down) in the tonal space of C the chords are therefore: CMaj7 - Dm7 - Em7 - FMaj7 - G7 - Am7 - Bm7b5 It's also possible to use Roman numerals, if the root key is known: Imaj7 - IIm7 - IIIm7 - IVmaj7 - V7 - VIm7 - VIIm7b5. Or even shorter: I - II - III - IV - V - VI - VII. This abbreviating is done in jazz arrangement often - the soloist knows at once then which mode matches. This is of course a very square-headed approach. Anyway, these established chord names always refer to the steps - if you know them - then this is easier to understand :) Now a very short trip into harmonics to explain why this is so: The respected standard of harmonics used in mainstream and jazz is based on the Berkeley system that was developed at the university of the same name in Caifornia at the beginning of the last century. It's established because it does include not only triads (the harmonic system of the classic) but also integrates chords build with four voices logically. The standard chords of a given key are build by layering thirds of the given root scale on one another (It's crucial that the thirds are belonging to the root scale). e.g.: C | E | G for the C-Major triad. In a four-voiced harmony there is just one layer of thirds more added on top of the triad. e.g.: C | E | G | B for the CMaj7 (" C Major seventh") (The convention of naming chords is explained farther down here). We go back again to our chords from above now: scale on the 1.step ("Major", "Ionian") tone: C | D | E | F | G | A | B | step: 1.| 2.| 3.| 4.| 5.| 6.| 7.| Now we just replace the Arabian numerals by Roman numerals and build the chords in their standard form again using only tones of the given scale and layering them in thirds of that scale on each other: we start on the 1.step and get: tone: CMaj7 | Dm7 | Em7 | FMaj7 | G7 | Am7 | Bm7b5 | step: I           | II       |III      | IV       | V    | VI     | VII   | Doing this, someone systemized an awareness that is rediscovered by nearly every pianist quite early - a detection that this piano player often views as a great secret he has found exclusively ;) This discovering often happens this way: The pianist pushes D | F | A | C ( "II") and mumbles: "Sounds cool. Hmmm. And what will happen, when I just shift two fingers now?" He pushes: D | F | G | B ( "V" - in another voicing than the basic form - in an inversion) He again and again alternates between the two chords - he is playing what is called a "II-V progression". Now the guy caught fire: he drives the alternating-white-keys-game to the final detection of the cadence as progression: He pushes: I - IV - VII - III - VI - II - V - I exactly the keys : C | E | G | B =  I   = 1. step = CMaj7 C | E | F | A =  IV = 4. step = FMaj7 B | D | F | A =  VII = 7. step = Bm7b5 B | D | E | G =  III  = 3. step = Em7 A | C | E | G =  VI  = 6. step = Am7 A | C | D | F =  II   = 2. step = Dm7 G | B | D | F =  V   = 5. step = G7 G | B | C | E =  I    = 1. step = CMaj7 This game could be continued endlessly and it already sounds great on the piano in the given voicing. For guitarists it's much more unlikely to find this out by coincidence. I repeat: at the beginning our pianist played a II-V progression .In jazz (in the grandpa "realbook" version of jazz) the progression appears as II-V-I often (appending the 1.step of the cadence to the progression, hereby bringing it back to the root chord). This progression is more than common - the old standards are flooded with that and it sounds extremely boring. Most jazzers hate it like pest therefore - but all have to practice it ;) The "boring" effect may be avoided by using only progressions consisting of two chords of the complete cadence. Or by altering tones of the chords, expanding or shrinking their structure (triads , 2-voice chords, 5 and more voices instead of the basic 4-voice formula) - or by simply replacing it with a completely different chord. This is called reharmonizing. However. The above mentioned cadence and its parts are your dayly companion as a mainstream musician. Therefore they must be practiced. Exercise and sample tracks will be imbedded here. They have names like "II-V" You now understand why. Your own ears will tell you that every progression not only allows the use of another mode: they even call for the use of another mode. So: practice the modes. To say it specificly: - Every scale must be practiced - In every key (!) - starting on each key (step) of the scale and ending with that same starting tone Hereby you automaticly learn Major, Minor, Dorian and so forth :)

Next

© All works and content under Creative Commons License BY NC ND

Tutorial

The Mainstream Soloist

Chords

How the naming system works Certain chord types always appear on certain steps of a cadence: step      abbreviation    Pronounciation I             Maj7                  Major 7th II            m7                     Minor 7th III           m7                     Minor 7th IV           Maj7                  Major 7th V            7                         Dominant 7th VI           m7                     Minor 7th VII          m7b5                Half- diminished 7th For the complete cadence (explanation follows farther down) in the tonal space of C the chords are therefore: CMaj7 - Dm7 - Em7 - FMaj7 - G7 - Am7 - Bm7b5 It's also possible to use Roman numerals, if the root key is known: Imaj7 - IIm7 - IIIm7 - IVmaj7 - V7 - VIm7 - VIIm7b5. Or even shorter: I - II - III - IV - V - VI - VII. This abbreviating is done in jazz arrangement often - the soloist knows at once then which mode matches. This is of course a very square- headed approach. Anyway, these established chord names always refer to the steps - if you know them - then this is easier to understand :) Now a very short trip into harmonics to explain why this is so: The respected standard of harmonics used in mainstream and jazz is based on the Berkeley system that was developed at the university of the same name in Caifornia at the beginning of the last century. It's established because it does include not only triads (the harmonic system of the classic) but also integrates chords build with four voices logically. The standard chords of a given key are build by layering thirds of the given root scale on one another (It's crucial that the thirds are belonging to the root scale). e.g.: C | E | G for the C-Major triad. In a four-voiced harmony there is just one layer of thirds more added on top of the triad. e.g.: C | E | G | B for the CMaj7 (" C Major seventh") (The convention of naming chords is explained farther down here). We go back again to our chords from above now: scale on the 1.step ("Major", "Ionian") tone: C | D | E | F | G | A | B | step: 1.| 2.| 3.| 4.| 5.| 6.| 7.| Now we just replace the Arabian numerals by Roman numerals and build the chords in their standard form again using only tones of the given scale and layering them in thirds of that scale on each other: we start on the 1.step and get: tone: CMaj7 | Dm7 | Em7 | FMaj7 | G7 | Am7 | Bm7b5 | step: I           | II       |III      | IV       | V    | VI     | VII   | Doing this, someone systemized an awareness that is rediscovered by nearly every pianist quite early - a detection that this piano player often views as a great secret he has found exclusively ;) This discovering often happens this way: The pianist pushes D | F | A | C ( "II") and mumbles: "Sounds cool. Hmmm. And what will happen, when I just shift two fingers now?" He pushes: D | F | G | B ( "V" - in another voicing than the basic form - in an inversion) He again and again alternates between the two chords - he is playing what is called a "II-V progression". Now the guy caught fire: he drives the alternating-white- keys-game to the final detection of the cadence as progression: He pushes: I - IV - VII - III - VI - II - V - I exactly the keys : C | E | G | B =  I   = 1. step = CMaj7 C | E | F | A =  IV = 4. step = FMaj7 B | D | F | A =  VII = 7. step = Bm7b5 B | D | E | G =  III  = 3. step = Em7 A | C | E | G =  VI  = 6. step = Am7 A | C | D | F =  II   = 2. step = Dm7 G | B | D | F =  V   = 5. step = G7 G | B | C | E =  I    = 1. step = CMaj7 This game could be continued endlessly and it already sounds great on the piano in the given voicing. For guitarists it's much more unlikely to find this out by coincidence. I repeat: at the beginning our pianist played a II-V progression .In jazz (in the grandpa "realbook" version of jazz) the progression appears as II-V-I often (appending the 1.step of the cadence to the progression, hereby bringing it back to the root chord). This progression is more than common - the old standards are flooded with that and it sounds extremely boring. Most jazzers hate it like pest therefore - but all have to practice it ;) The "boring" effect may be avoided by using only progressions consisting of two chords of the complete cadence. Or by altering tones of the chords, expanding or shrinking their structure (triads , 2-voice chords, 5 and more voices instead of the basic 4-voice formula) - or by simply replacing it with a completely different chord. This is called reharmonizing. However. The above mentioned cadence and its parts are your dayly companion as a mainstream musician. Therefore they must be practiced. Exercise and sample tracks will be imbedded here. They have names like "II-V" You now understand why. Your own ears will tell you that every progression not only allows the use of another mode: they even call for the use of another mode. So: practice the modes. To say it specificly: - Every scale must be practiced - In every key (!) - starting on each key (step) of the scale and ending with that same starting tone Hereby you automaticly learn Major, Minor, Dorian and so forth :)

Next

Art Lip                Welcome to my universe