Art            Lip               Welcome                  to my universe
I‘m a: singer/songwriter, multi-instrumentalist/trumpetplayer, producer/performer, photographer/visual artist, science fiction writer
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Tutorial

The Mainstream Soloist

Standard Harmonies

The daily food: the standard cadences of Western harmonics "I - IV - VII - III - VI - II - V - I", as chords in C: Cmaj7 - Fmaj7 - Bm7b5 - Em7 - Am7 - G7 - Cmaj7 That was the complete cadence, as described in the chapter about the basics of harmonics. The complete cadence practically never happens to manifest itself in real existing music. It just sounds too smooth and obvious. Instead of that, parts of the cadence are build into songs. These are transposed or otherwise tonally shifted or changed, e.g. by replacing single tones of a given chord by alternatives. Or they are completely replaced by an entirely different chord. This process is called reharmonizing and nearly all composers do it on an unconscious level. I am usually no exception of that rule, because the conscious method is very academic. It stays being a fact anyway, that twin-groups of the cadence (progressions consisting of 2 chords of the cadence) are common in practically every mainstream composition. That is not always perceptible on first glance - since three-voiced parts of the originally four-voiced progressions have the same funtionality in the context of the track. A simple example: The III-VI progression Em7 / Am7 is equally good replacable by Em / Am. Example 2: The I-IV progression CMaj7 / FMaj7 contains in it's four-voiced structure also the three-voiced progression Em / Am. As we can see here, the combination of two triads (Em / Am in the given case) can be interpreted as a III-VI progression as well as a I-IV, depending on the harmonic context. Em7 also embraces the G(Major) triad. And this again could be extended to....etc...etc... We won't stay in these innards of harmonics. Instead of this we draw the pragmatical résumé: The soloist who mastered the seven possible single four-voiced double- combinations of chords that are part of the complete standard progession, is automatically enabled to play over the imbedded possibilities (triads and two- voiced chords) too. Therefore these combinations must be practiced! In all keys! It should be clear by now why - everything is connected. These patterns have to be engraved upon the player's mind! All 7 combinations are provided here in audible form. Here the details once more for your convenience: I - IV is   C | E | G | B = I   = 1.step = CMaj7 C | E | F | A  = IV = 4. step = FMaj7 IV - VII is C | E | F | A = IV = 4. step = FMaj7 B | D | F | A = VII = 7.step = Bm7b5 VII - III is   B | D | F | A = VII = 7. step = Bm7b5 B | D | E | G = III = 3. step = Em7 III - VI is   B | D | E | G = III = 3. step = Em7 A | C | E | G = VI = 6. step = Am7 VI - II is   A | C | E | G = VI = 6. step = Am7 A | C | D | F = II = 2. step = Dm7 II - V is   A | C | D | F = II = 2. step = Dm7 G | B | D | F = V = 5. step = G7 V - I is   G | B | D | F = V = 5. step = G7 G | B | C | E = I = 1. step = CMaj7 "So - what scales should I use specificly now?" This question is not answerable by "this" and "that" or "no else than". As long as we are in the tonal space of C - that we did in all given examples so far - it will be a derivation of the key C starting on it's different steps that will match. In other words - we play the scale of C - but in most cases we start on another tone than C. Over the I-IV progression I personally would start on G or E in most cases - in other words, I would start on the 5.step (Mixolydian) or on the 3.step (Phrygian). This is partly a matter of taste and also depends on the mood one is in or wants to create. But observe: I started in both cases on a tone of the first chord (the fifth and the third in my example). You will indeed notice very soon, that it is not a good idea really to start with another tone than one of the underlying chord. And especially you won't want to end on an outside tone, if the chord the song starts with is also it's ending harmony. Exeption: you choose a tone that is a harmonic extension of the given chord. Under the line, the point with all these exercises is the following finally: Even if you push aside all the theory involved here: the harmonies will force you to use the right scales because otherwise you will feel uncomfortable while playing. One educates oneself unconsciously to learn the right. By practicing it. I never spend much time with thoughts about what I am playing when I come to these stereotypes. I did practice it so often, that my fingers find their way automatically. The emotions rush into my fingers directly... Also, don't forget to play arpeggios. Soli are very often constructed by using sections of a scale mainly - every change to that habit is an improvement of quality. Anyway - these scales have to be mastered: you have to be the master of the scales literally. Because: in a real solo they are most often used for rapid fills - many notes appearing very fast in a very short time. And then these sequences have to come absolutely fluently - pearls on a chain in the hands of a Chinese Grandmaster of Martial Arts:) Otherwise one cannot play doubletime. And that again is a very important means of decoration in a solo. I will tell more about this topic in the chapters farther down.

Next

© All works and content under Creative Commons License BY NC ND

Tutorial

The Mainstream Soloist

Standard Harmonies

The daily food: the standard cadences of Western harmonics "I - IV - VII - III - VI - II - V - I", as chords in C: Cmaj7 - Fmaj7 - Bm7b5 - Em7 - Am7 - G7 - Cmaj7 That was the complete cadence, as described in the chapter about the basics of harmonics. The complete cadence practically never happens to manifest itself in real existing music. It just sounds too smooth and obvious. Instead of that, parts of the cadence are build into songs. These are transposed or otherwise tonally shifted or changed, e.g. by replacing single tones of a given chord by alternatives. Or they are completely replaced by an entirely different chord. This process is called reharmonizing and nearly all composers do it on an unconscious level. I am usually no exception of that rule, because the conscious method is very academic. It stays being a fact anyway, that twin-groups of the cadence (progressions consisting of 2 chords of the cadence) are common in practically every mainstream composition. That is not always perceptible on first glance - since three-voiced parts of the originally four- voiced progressions have the same funtionality in the context of the track. A simple example: The III-VI progression Em7 / Am7 is equally good replacable by Em / Am. Example 2: The I-IV progression CMaj7 / FMaj7 contains in it's four- voiced structure also the three-voiced progression Em / Am. As we can see here, the combination of two triads (Em / Am in the given case) can be interpreted as a III-VI progression as well as a I-IV, depending on the harmonic context. Em7 also embraces the G(Major) triad. And this again could be extended to....etc...etc... We won't stay in these innards of harmonics. Instead of this we draw the pragmatical résumé: The soloist who mastered the seven possible single four- voiced double-combinations of chords that are part of the complete standard progession, is automatically enabled to play over the imbedded possibilities (triads and two-voiced chords) too. Therefore these combinations must be practiced! In all keys! It should be clear by now why - everything is connected. These patterns have to be engraved upon the player's mind! All 7 combinations are provided here in audible form. Here the details once more for your convenience: I - IV is   C | E | G | B = I   = 1.step = CMaj7 C | E | F | A  = IV = 4. step = FMaj7 IV - VII is C | E | F | A = IV = 4. step = FMaj7 B | D | F | A = VII = 7.step = Bm7b5 VII - III is   B | D | F | A = VII = 7. step = Bm7b5 B | D | E | G = III = 3. step = Em7 III - VI is   B | D | E | G = III = 3. step = Em7 A | C | E | G = VI = 6. step = Am7 VI - II is   A | C | E | G = VI = 6. step = Am7 A | C | D | F = II = 2. step = Dm7 II - V is   A | C | D | F = II = 2. step = Dm7 G | B | D | F = V = 5. step = G7 V - I is   G | B | D | F = V = 5. step = G7 G | B | C | E = I = 1. step = CMaj7 "So - what scales should I use specificly now?" This question is not answerable by "this" and "that" or "no else than". As long as we are in the tonal space of C - that we did in all given examples so far - it will be a derivation of the key C starting on it's different steps that will match. In other words - we play the scale of C - but in most cases we start on another tone than C. Over the I-IV progression I personally would start on G or E in most cases - in other words, I would start on the 5.step (Mixolydian) or on the 3.step (Phrygian). This is partly a matter of taste and also depends on the mood one is in or wants to create. But observe: I started in both cases on a tone of the first chord (the fifth and the third in my example). You will indeed notice very soon, that it is not a good idea really to start with another tone than one of the underlying chord. And especially you won't want to end on an outside tone, if the chord the song starts with is also it's ending harmony. Exeption: you choose a tone that is a harmonic extension of the given chord. Under the line, the point with all these exercises is the following finally: Even if you push aside all the theory involved here: the harmonies will force you to use the right scales because otherwise you will feel uncomfortable while playing. One educates oneself unconsciously to learn the right. By practicing it. I never spend much time with thoughts about what I am playing when I come to these stereotypes. I did practice it so often, that my fingers find their way automatically. The emotions rush into my fingers directly... Also, don't forget to play arpeggios. Soli are very often constructed by using sections of a scale mainly - every change to that habit is an improvement of quality. Anyway - these scales have to be mastered: you have to be the master of the scales literally. Because: in a real solo they are most often used for rapid fills - many notes appearing very fast in a very short time. And then these sequences have to come absolutely fluently - pearls on a chain in the hands of a Chinese Grandmaster of Martial Arts:) Otherwise one cannot play doubletime. And that again is a very important means of decoration in a solo. I will tell more about this topic in the chapters farther down.

Next

Art Lip                Welcome to my universe